However, Turbidity is the amount of suspended solids (in mg) present in 1 litre of water. Methods of measuring turbidity are descibe as:-
B.Jackson Turbiditymeter (used when turbidity > 25 units)
D.Nephelometer (Most precise, commonly used these days, used when turbidity < 1 unit)
Units: NTU or JTU or ppm or mg/l
Whereas, Color is measured with the help of Tintometer. However, what we measure here is the 1mg of platinum cobalt in the form of chloroplatinate ion.
3.Taste and Odour
Taste and Odour is also measured with the help of Osmoscope.
Units: TON (Threshold Odour Number)
Dilution factor = (Vs+Vw)/Vs
whereas Vs = volume of raw water (smelling water) and Vw = volume of distilled water.
The temperature of water should be certainly between 10 to 25 degree celsius.
Determined by portable dionic water tester. Meanwhile, it is expressed as micro mohs per cm at 25 degree C.
a. Total solids
Total solids = dissolved solids + suspended solids
It is determined by evaporating 1 lt. of water and weighing the solids left.
b. Suspended solids
Suspended solids is determined by following process-
Firstly take a whatman filter paper and weigh it. Then pass the raw water through it. Now the suspended solid is stuck over filter paper. It is weighted. Then weight of filter paper is subtracted. Therefore weight of suspended solids is obtained,
c. Dissolved solids
However, Dissolved solids = Total solids – Suspended solids
PH = -log [H+]
POH = -log [OH-]
[H+] [OH-] = 10^(-14)
PH + POH = 14
a. CH (Carbonate Hardness)
Carbonate Hardness is also known as Temporary hardness. Although, Formed by carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium.
b. NCH (Non Carbonate Hardness)
Non Carbonate Hardness is also known as Permanent hardness. Although, Formed by chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.
4.Permissible limits and Rejection limits
Firstly, Free ammonia (0.15 mg/lt.). Secondly, Organic ammonia (0.30 mg/lt.). Thirdly, Nitrite (nil). At lastly, Nitrate (45 mg/lt.)
Moreover, Kjedahl Ammonia = free ammonia + organic ammonia
Also, Excess of nitrate causes Blue Baby Disease / Blue Baby Syndrome (Methemoglobinemia).
1.MPN (Most Probable Number)
a) Presumptive Test
Therefore, Chemical used in this test is lactose broth. Firstly, Incubated for 24 hours at 35 degree Celsius
b) Confirmative Test
Therefore, Chemical used in this test is lactose green bile broth. In the same way, incubated for 24 hours at 35 degree Celsius
c) Completed Test
Therefore, the formula of Thomson’s Equation to calculate MPN/ 100ml is given as under:
2.Membrane Filter Technique
So, Nutrient added – M Endo Medium
Subsequently, Coliform colonies are counted after 20-24 hours of incubation.
However, It is defined as reciprocal of smallest quantity of sample which gives positive B-coli test.
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