Introduction of Transportation
Transportation is nothing but the movement of persons and goods from one place to another. No region or country can ever flourish if it lacks adequate transport facilities. It is essential for economic as well as social development. Therefore, the different modes of transportation are Railways, Highways, Waterways, Airways etc.
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Classification of transportation –
Transportation can be classified in following ways –
1. Classification from the surface point of view
- Land Transport such as Highways, Railways, Cableways, Ropeways etc.
- Water Transport e.g. canalways, Riverways, Oceanways, Lakeways etc.
- Air Transport e.g. airways etc.
2. Classification according to means of communication
- Human Porter
- Animal Transport
- Road Transport
- Rail Transport
- Air Transport
- Water Transport
- Pipeline Transport
- Conveyor Transport
- Cable Transport
- Ropeway Transport
3. Classification based on degree of freedom
- One Degree of Freedom – Vehicles can move along a line e.g. railways, Pipeline, Conveyor, Cableways etc.
- Two Degrees of Freedom – Vehicles can move along a line as well as laterally e.g. highway vehicles, ships, boats etc.
- Three Degrees of Freedom – Vehicles can move in all 3 directions i.e. longitudinally, laterally and vertically. E.g. aeroplanes and under water Submarines.
4. Classification according to energy used for movement
- Human energy
- Animal energy
- Petrol and diesel energy
- Steam energy
- Electric energy
- Solar energy
- Atomic energy
- Other non-conventional energies e.g. batteries, hydraulic, geothermal etc.
Historical Development of Railways in India
|Five Year Plan||Year||Expenditure|
|First Five Year Plan||1951-1956||257 cr.|
|Second Five Year Plan||1956-1961||896 cr.|
|Third Five Year Plan||1961-1966||1470 cr.|
|Fourth Five Year Plan||1969-1974||1050 cr.|
|Fifth Five Year Plan||1974-1978||2200 cr.|
|Sixth Five Year Plan||1980-1985||5100 cr.|
|Seventh Five Year Plan||1985-1990||12334 cr.|
|Eighth Five Year Plan||1992-1997||27202 cr.|
|Ninth Five Year Plan||1997-2002||45413 cr.|
|Tenth Five Year Plan||2002-2007||3113 cr.|
|Eleventh Five Year Plan||2007-2012||–|
Organization of Indian Railways
- Railway Board
- Research Designs & Standards Organisation (RDSO)
- Zonal Railways
- Production Units
- Central Organisation for Modernization of workship (COFMOW)
- Commissions of railway safety
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