What is Substructure and Superstructure ?
Generally, building consists of walls, doors, windows etc. for providing protection against weathering agencies such as heat, light, rain, snowfall etc. The building should be situated on a good site and every part of the building should be properly plan and design to meet the essential requirements. The two main parts of the building are : Substructure and Superstructure of the building.
Substructure of the building
The part of the building construct below the ground level is refer as foundation. It may also refer as Substructure. This part is not use for accommodation purposes. Its only function is to transfer the load of the building into the sub-soil uniformly and without causing an even settlement. The width and depth of the foundation is design, keeping in view the type of soil, load to be support and the bearing power of the soil.
In case, any accommodation is provide below the ground level, this part, only is refer as basement.
Superstructure of the building
This part of the building construct above the ground level is refer as Superstructure. This part of the building consists of wall, roofs, pillars or columns, doors, windows etc.
Walls are provide to enclose the area and to divide the whole area into number of rooms depending upon the requirements. Whereas, Doors are provide for free and easy access into the rooms. Windows are provide for light and ventilation purposes.
However In this, the buildings are classify depending upon their fire resistance in house. The resistance is express in Kcal/m2 against a specify test load and specify fire intensity.
- Type-I construction – 4 hours fire resistance.
- Type-II construction – 3 hours fire resistance.
- Type-III construction – 2 hours fire resistance.
- Type-IV construction – 1 hours fire resistance.