##### Traverse Survey, Latitude and Departure, Closing Error

Traverse is the framework of lines.

### Types of Traverse

**1.Closed Traverse**: Closed Traverse originates from a station and returns to the same station completing a closed loop.

**2.Open Traverse**: Open Traverse does not return to its starting station and does not closes to make a loop.

**Latitude and Departure**

Latitude is the projection of line which lies in north-south direction; departure is the projection of line which lies in the east-west direction .

North latitudes are positive, South are negative.

Similarly, East departures are positive and West are negative.

### Closing Error

The ratio of distance by which a survey fails to close to the perimeter of the tract surveyed is termed as Closing Error.

Also, the sum of the angles of a traverse as measured minus the true sum required by geometry is termed as Closing Error.

### Methods of correction of closing error

1.Bowditch Method

2.Transit Method

3.Graphical Method

4.Axis Method

**Bowditch Method** – Line and angle measured with same precision.

**Transit Method** – Angle precision is more than Line precision.

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