Traverse Survey, Latitude and Departure, Closing Error
Traverse is the framework of lines.
Types of Traverse
1.Closed Traverse: Closed Traverse originates from a station and returns to the same station completing a closed loop.
2.Open Traverse: Open Traverse does not return to its starting station and does not closes to make a loop.
Latitude and Departure
Latitude is the projection of line which lies in north-south direction; departure is the projection of line which lies in the east-west direction .
North latitudes are positive, South are negative.
Similarly, East departures are positive and West are negative.
The ratio of distance by which a survey fails to close to the perimeter of the tract surveyed is termed as Closing Error.
Also, the sum of the angles of a traverse as measured minus the true sum required by geometry is termed as Closing Error.
Methods of correction of closing error
Bowditch Method – Line and angle measured with same precision.
Transit Method – Angle precision is more than Line precision.